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Format  Sitcom
Run time  approx. 0:23 (per episode)
Creator  Bill Lawrence
Starring  Zach Braff
Donald Faison
Sarah Chalke
John C. McGinley
Judy Reyes
Ken Jenkins
Neil Flynn
Country  USA
Network  NBC
Original run  October 2, 2001–present
No. of episodes  93 (to the end of Season 4; is renewed for Season 5 in 2005-06)

Scrubs is an American sitcom on NBC created by Bill Lawrence, who also co-created Spin City.

The show, which premiered in 2001, focuses on the professional and personal lives of several characters working at Sacred Heart, a hospital in an unspecified city, and is currently in its fourth season.


The show premiered on October 2, 2001. What distinguishes it from other sitcoms are its use of narration, unusually verbose characters, abrupt segues between subplots, breakneck pace, scenes of surreal escapism (usually presented as the thoughts of the main character), and poignant scenes where the characters address how doctors deal with death, the delivery of dire diagnoses, and other hospital-related/personal issues. It also lacks a laugh track, a typical device in most sitcoms; this makes it one of the few US shows positioned as a comedy to do so since M*A*S*H. Also unlike most sitcoms it uses a one camera setup (compare to a multicamera setup). The show is structured around various storylines, which are thematically linked via voice-overs, intended to deliver a small life-lesson and often a joke.

Theme song

The opening theme to Scrubs is "Superman," performed by Lazlo Bane, which can be found on the album All The Time In The World, as well as on the first Scrubs soundtrack. Briefly during the second season, NBC increased the featured cast to include Neil Flynn and other members of the extended cast, but returned to the original credit sequence due to its appropriate length. The opening theme consists of the last few bars of the song, but the complete song has not, so far, occurred in an episode, though the music video for the song (available at the Scrubs website) does use footage from the actors and sets. The menu of the first season DVD set of the show, however, features the song in its entirety.
Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Part of the cast in 2004-05 - clockwise from left: Sarah Chalke, John C. McGinley, Zach Braff, Donald Faison, Judy Reyes
Part of the cast in 2004-05 - clockwise from left: Sarah Chalke, John C. McGinley, Zach Braff, Donald Faison, Judy Reyes

Main cast

    * Zach Braff as Dr. John Michael 'J.D.' Dorian
      The affably nerdish narrator and main character—initially an intern and later a resident in medicine—who provides the narration most of the time. He is afraid of sharks and escalators, acts strangely around pennies, does not believe in karma (ep. "My Old Man"), believes in karma (ep. "My Karma") and collects scarves. Served as Co-Chief Resident for his fourth year at Sacred Heart, and took a job as staff internist there at the end of the fourth season. Nicknames: Newbie, Bambi, Q-Tip, Scooter, Alfalfa, Peepee Lafritz, whiz kid, Dorothy (nickname given to him when he played the lead role in his high school's production of The Wiz), numerous female names, and wants to be called tiger, does not like to be called Johnny.
    * Sarah Chalke as Dr. Elliot Reid
      A close friend of J.D. and fellow medical resident, although the boundaries between friendship and relationship have often been crossed. It is a running joke in the show that she and J.D. slept together at least once during each of the first three seasons, although creator Bill Lawrence has hinted that this may cease in order to avoid clich鐃�storylines. She has cold hands (which she attributes to bad circulation), doesn't like to be touched (implied to be because she is a WASP from Connecticut), votes Republican, speaks German and French, and is insecure about her eyebrows and her "camel" butt. According to J.D. and various patients, her bedside manner is too cold and machine-like. Served as Chief Resident during her 4th year of residency, with J.D. as Co-Chief Resident. At the conclusion of Season 4, it was announced that Elliot received an endocrinology fellowship at a different hospital, requiring her to leave Sacred Heart. Bill Lawrence has confirmed (1) that despite the move she will return in Season 5, and remain friends with the rest of the cast. Nicknames: Barbie, Blonde Doctor, Stick, Marshmallow, Smelliot, Roller-Moler.
    * Donald Faison as Dr. Christopher Duncan Turk
      Also called 'Turk' (or occasionally called 'Turkleton' by Dr Kelso), he is J.D.'s best friend, diabetic, a soon-to-be 4th year surgical resident, and married to Carla as of the end of Season 3. His cell phone number is (916) CALL-TUR, although he hopes that people will dial the 'K' anyway. Nicknames: Gandhi, Turkleton, Chocolate/Brown Bear, Black Whale.
    * Neil Flynn as the unnamed janitor
      Has made it his business to terrorize J.D. His hobbies include taxidermy (he once rid the trees by the hospital of all the squirrels). He has made some claims about his personal life, such as that he is married and has at least one child, and that he went to Harvard, but no one has ever found out if these are true. As revealed in a few flashbacks, his mother's strict parenting influenced him (indirectly) to become a janitor. It is revealed in the storyline that 'Janitor' actually played the role of a transit cop in the film The Fugitive (1993). Neil Flynn actually did play the part, mixing reality with the storyline. Janitor shares this secret only with J.D. Although he is seen tormenting J.D. about everyday in the Hospital, Janitor sees him as his only friend in the hospital. He also refers to people by physical characteristics. He is very nice to Elliot (whom he knows as "Blonde Doctor") and, as of season 4, seems to have romantic feelings for her. Nicknames: Soft-Scrub, Supercuts, Jolly Green, Sir Plunge-a-lot(secretly by the nurses).
    * Ken Jenkins as Dr. Robert 'Bob' Kelso
      The truculent chief of medicine for the hospital. He appears to be more interested in profit and staying out of legal trouble than helping patients. He and the Janitor are the only major characters whose personal lives we do not see in detail. Although appearing cold, Dr. Kelso does appreciate those around him, a fact that is completely unknown to his staff. He has a tattoo of the word 'Johnny' on his butt. He has two children, one who is portrayed as a gay heavy metal fan and another who is his secret love-child 'Kwong Tri Kelso', presumably the product of his love of asian prostitutes Nicknames: Bobbo, Bob Cat, Bobbotron, Beelzebob.

The cast - clockwise from left: Judy Reyes, Ken Jenkins, Donald Faison, Neil Flynn, John C. McGinley, Sarah Chalke and Zach Braff
The cast - clockwise from left: Judy Reyes, Ken Jenkins, Donald Faison, Neil Flynn, John C. McGinley, Sarah Chalke and Zach Braff

    * John C. McGinley as Dr. Percival "Perry" Cox
      J.D.'s sarcastic, bitter mentor, who routinely belittles him. However, he is secretly proud of J.D.'s progress. When in a good mood, he addresses J.D. as "Newbie", and when in a bad mood, he addresses J.D. using traditionally feminine names, or occasionally, classic dog names. He also usually calls Turk "Gandhi" and calls Elliot "Barbie". Doug is referred to as either "Pee Pants" or "Nervous Guy". Cox shows the same lack of respect for his superiors — he calls Dr. Kelso "Bobbo", "Bob-cat", "Beelzebob" or other such names. It is implied that this is the reason why he is not advancing up the career ladder. Unlike Dr. Kelso, Cox is shown to have a soft side, and to have a strong sense of medical ethics. He has feelings for Carla, who is one of the few people in the hospital he can stand, and "totally gets" him. When Carla is hurt by Turk's unwillingness to communicate with her, Cox protectively exacts revenge on him, exclaiming that "Nobody hurts Carla and gets away with it". He is divorced from Jordan, played by Christa Miller Lawrence, but the two have since come back together. Ted reveals that the pair were not in fact divorced, however after initially welcoming this the two got properly divorced as the revelation was beginning to sabotage their relationship. Nicknames: Per, Per-Per, Big Dog, The Big Cheese, The Coxinator, Coxy.
    * Judy Reyes as Nurse Carla Espinosa
      A strong-willed nurse who has been married to Turk since the end of Season 3. Despite Elliot's best efforts, Carla doesn't feel particularly close to her. Conversely, she and J.D. (whom she refers to —- affectionately —- as "Bambi") have a fairly close friendship. She is protective towards J.D. and stands up for him when Dr. Cox shouts at him for no reason. She claims that of all the interns she has worked with, J.D. is the only one whose approval of her she has actually cared about, to the extent that she feigned an interest in black and white photography so he would think she was more intelligent. She has a tendency to tell people their faults without them asking, and give unwanted advice. No one makes fun of her as all the other characters are scared of her. Nicknames: Nurse Turkleton, Karla from the Block.


Recurring cast

These cast members have appeared in numerous episodes since the show's incipience but remain credited as guest stars.

    * Michael Hobert as Lonnie, the medical resident under the supervision of J.D. and Elliot. He and J.D. occasionally spar with each other over insignificant incidents, but Lonnie has been spending an increasing amount of time with J.D. and Elliot. He is married with three children, and can grow a moustache in one day. Introduced at the end of Season 3, his role has continued to increase. Michael Hobert also appeared as an extra in the pilot.
    * Johnny Kastl as Doug "Nervous Guy" Murphy, the nervous and terribly inept colleague of J.D. and Elliot. After being the only person in the history of the hospital to repeat his third year of residency, he transferred from medicine to the morgue in Season 4, where his extensive personal knowledge of botched medical procedures makes him an expert coroner. Also he is under the impression that the dead bodies in the morgue are after him after having a lot of them falling on him.
    * Sam Lloyd as Theodore "Ted" Buckland, the divorced hospital lawyer whose desire to kill Dr. Kelso is surpassed only by his unfortunate inability to have an opinion; he is part of a barbershop quartet with three other administration workers from around the hospital called The Worthless Peons (played by The Blanks). He is prone to panic and outbreaks of excessive sweating.
    * Robert Maschio as (The) Todd, the jockish surgery resident who is friends with Turk, and who attempts to turn every sentence into a double entendre. He loves high-fiving. He is, however, a competent surgeon. There have been hints that his excessive boorishness towards women is over-compensation for homosexuality. He has a fixation with tight-fitting men's underwear ("banana hammocks").
    * Christa Miller Lawrence as Jordan Sullivan, Dr. Cox's ex-wife, who is his only rival for sheer sarcasm. She slept with J.D. before he realised that she was Dr. Cox's ex-wife. In Season 2, she gave birth to Dr. Cox's son, and the two have since rebuilt their relationship and live together, albeit in a non-marital arrangement. She is on the hospital's Board of Directors, but gets a full-time position at the hospital at the end of Season 4.
    * Aloma Wright as Nurse Laverne Roberts, who spends her days at the hospital watching soap operas and keeping up with inter-office gossip. She has made many comments about others "having to answer to Jesus" implying a religious background.


Major guest cast

Important roles have been played by:

    * Tom Cavanagh, as J.D.'s older brother Dan.
    * John Ritter, as J.D. and Dan's father Sam Dorian; just as on 8 Simple Rules, Scrubs featured an episode dealing with the character's death, following the real-life death of Ritter.
    * Scott Foley, as Elliot's two-time ex-boyfriend Sean Kelly.
    * Michael J. Fox, as Dr. Kevin Casey, a medical attending and also a surgeon with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    * Brendan Fraser, as Jordan's brother and Dr Cox's best friend Ben Sullivan (character died during the 3rd season).
    * Heather Locklear, as Julie, a representative of a pharmaceutical company, lusted after by the men of the hospital. Had a relationship with Dr Cox which lasted less than a full episode.
    * Tara Reid, as J.D.'s two-time ex-girlfriend Danni Sullivan and Jordan's sister.
    * D.L. Hughley, as Turk's brother Kevin.
    * Freddy Rodr鐃�uez, as Carla's brother and Turk's nemesis Marco.
    * Josh Randall, as Elliot's new love interest introduced towards the end of the 4th season.
    * Julianna Margulies, as cold-hearted malpractice attorney Neena Broderick.
    * Amy Smart, as J.D.'s one-time love interest, and wife of a comatose car crash victim, Jamie Moyer or Tasty Coma Wife (TCW).
    * Heather Graham as attending psychiatrist Dr. Molly Clock, whom J.D. had a crush on.
    * Rick Schroder as Nurse Paul Flowers, whom Elliot dated during the 2nd season.
    * Elizabeth Bogush as Alex Hanson, a social worker at the hospital and who dated J.D. during the first season. She was revealed to be a drug addict.
    * Martin Klebba as Randall the Crotch-Punching Midget, who became a janitor in Season 3. Whenever J.D. thinks about or meets him, he says, "Powerful tiny fists." Randall joined the Janitor's impromptu acapella band, along with Troy the Cafeteria Worker (Joe Rose) in season 4 to help the Janitor impress Elliott.

Alan Ruck, Michael Boatman, Barry Bostwick, Alexander Chaplin and Richard Kind, who previously worked with Bill Lawrence on "Spin City", have also guest-starred, as have Clay Aiken, Lee Ermey, Colin Farrell, Sean Hayes, Christopher Meloni, Jay Mohr, Matthew Perry, Ryan Reynolds, Nicole Sullivan, Dick Van Dyke, Jimmie Walker, Kelli Williams, and Hattie Winston.


The cast and crew of the show have been vigilant about keeping the location of the fictionalized Sacred Heart hospital a secret, although many fans continue to speculate about where the show takes place. Based on current clues, the show seems to take place somewhere in the state of California, although the particular region is unclear. These clues include:

    * Throughout Season 3, Elliot took a commuter train to visit her then-boyfriend Sean (played by Scott Foley), who worked as an animal trainer at a SeaWorld theme park. SeaWorld has locations in Orlando, Florida, San Antonio, Texas, and San Diego, California.
    * During episodes that air during the winter months, characters are seen wearing winter clothing such as coats, gloves, and scarves, suggesting that the climate is a more temperate one than that found in Florida or Texas.
    * Exterior shots on the show reveal very flat land with palm trees and other features of hotter climates.
    * In episode 4 of the first season, Carla states that a third of the hospitals patients speak Spanish as a primary language, which may reflect upon the demographics of the location.
    * During episode 9 of the fourth season, Turk reveals his new cell phone number to be (916) CALL-TUR. The area code 916 corresponds to the metropolitan area of Sacramento, which contradicts other clues about the show's location. Many fans have pointed out, however, that the area code for cell phones can correspond to where the phone was purchased, implying that Turk may have bought his phone in the Sacramento area and brought it to Sacred Heart's home city.
    * In episode 15 of the first season Kelso describes how his father got started in medicine in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, however other clues to the location discount Kelso staying there.
    * In episode 4 of the fourth season, a conversation between Elliot and Dr. Molly Clock establishes that the time difference between the location of the hospital and Greenland is three hours, as Greenland is largely UTC-3 (though this varies from UTC to UTC-4), this places Sacred Heart in UTC-6, or Central Standard Time.

Thus far, the majority of clues seem to point to Sacred Heart being located in Southern California. In fact, the show is taped in an abandoned hospital in Southern California, near Sherman Oaks, on Riverside Blvd.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Season 1

   1. My First Day (aka Pilot) — J.D. and the rest of the interns begin their first day at Sacred Heart.
   2. My Mentor — J.D. tries to get to know Dr. Cox. Elliot gets on the wrong side of Carla.
   3. My Best Friend's Mistake — J.D. misses spending time with Turk, who he also thinks has made a mistake during surgery.
   4. My Old Lady — The three new interns have to confront death for the first time.
   5. My Two Dads — J.D. has to decide between Dr. Kelso and Dr. Cox. Elliot thinks her breasts have healing powers and Turk gives Carla a gift of a pen that unbeknownst to him was removed from someone's rectum.
   6. My Bad — J.D. is given a board member to care for, whom with he has sex. She turns out to be Dr. Cox's ex-wife.
   7. My Super Ego — J.D. is brought down a couple of pegs by another intern.
   8. My Fifteen Minutes — J.D. and Turk save the life of a TV cameraman, while at the same time worrying about intern evaluations.
   9. My Day Off — J.D. develops appendicitis and sees the hospital from the patients' point of view.
  10. My Nickname — J.D. and Carla's relationship changes when he starts to have more medical knowledge than her.
  11. My Own Personal Jesus — Turk loses his Christmas spirit after spending a night on call. He regains it after helping a pregnant girl.
  12. My Blind Date — J.D. is tasked with looking after a social worker who slipped and fell in the hospital. She is stuck in an MRI machine and he asks her out without seeing her face.
  13. My Balancing Act — J.D. and the social worker, Alex, are going out. However they are continually interrupted by the hospital. Carla is unable to have an orgasm.
  14. My Drug Buddy — A patient is suspected of stealing drugs. It turns out to be Alex. J.D. and Elliot sleep together at the end of the episode.
  15. My Bed Banter & Beyond — J.D. and Elliot spend the day in bed having sex, while flashing forward as their relationship deteriorates.
  16. My Heavy Meddle — J.D. and Elliot are not talking to each other after breaking up. Dr. Cox goes on the rampage.
  17. My Student — The interns receive their first interns, each of whom is very different. J.D.'s is very much like he was at the beginning; Elliot's is a jerk but the son of the CEO of the corporation that owns the hospital; Turk's is a smart confident woman who Dr. Cox is attracted to.
  18. My Tuscaloosa Heart — J.D. feels guilty when a rude patient, who he ignored, dies. Carla assures him that it was the terminal cancer, but J.D. is unable to sleep. Dr. Cox is unable to decide between the three women who he likes.
  19. My Old Man — The interns' parents come to visit.
  20. My Way or the Highway — J.D. is angry at Turk for convincing his patient to have surgery.
  21. My Sacrificial Clam — J.D. is stuck by a needle full of blood contaminated with Hepatitis B. He becomes scared of getting sick. Elliot chooses the hospital over her new boyfriend.
  22. My Occurrence (Part 1) — Jordan's brother Ben comes into the hospital after piercing his hand with a nail gun. His hand won't stop bleeding and the doctors suspect that he has leukemia. J.D. is unable to accept this diagnosis.
  23. My Hero (Part 2) — Ben begins treatment for his cancer, but Dr. Cox is unable to be there as he loves Ben too much.
  24. My Last Day — The interns realize they have become the jaded doctors they said they never would.


Season 2

   1. My Overkill
   2. My Nightingale
   3. My Case Study
   4. My Big Mouth
   5. My New Coat
   6. My Big Brother
   7. My First Step
   8. My Fruit Cups
   9. My Lucky Day
  10. My Monster
  11. My Sex Buddy
  12. My New Old Friend
  13. My Philosophy
  14. My Brother, My Keeper
  15. His Story
  16. My Karma
  17. My Own Private Practice Guy
  18. My T.C.W.
  19. My Kingdom
  20. My Interpretation
  21. My Drama Queen
  22. My Dream Job


Season 3

   1. My American Girl
   2. My Journey
   3. My White Whale
   4. My Lucky Night
   5. My Brother, Where Art Thou?
   6. My Advice to You
   7. My Fifteen Seconds
   8. My Friend the Doctor
   9. My Dirty Secret
  10. My Rule of Thumb
  11. My Clean Break
  12. My Catalyst
  13. My Porcelain God
  14. My Screw Up
  15. My Tormented Mentor
  16. My Butterfly
  17. My Moment of Un-Truth
  18. His Story II
  19. My Choosiest Choice of All
  20. My Fault
  21. My Self-Examination
  22. My Best Friend's Wedding


Season 4

   1. My Old Friend's New Friend
   2. My Office
   3. My New Game
   4. My First Kill
   5. Her Story
   6. My Cake
   7. My Common Enemy
   8. My Last Chance
   9. My Malpractice Decision (aka My MalPractical Decision) (Part 1)
  10. My Female Trouble (Part 2)
  11. My Unicorn
  12. My Best Moment
  13. My Ocardial Infarction
  14. My Lucky Charm
  15. My Hypocritical Oath
  16. My Quarantine
  17. My Life In Four Cameras
  18. My Roommates
  19. My Best Laid Plans
  20. My Boss's Free Haircut
  21. My Lips Are Sealed
  22. My Big Move
  23. My Faith In Humanity
  24. My Drive-By
  25. My Changing Ways


Season 5

Renewed by NBC through the end of Season 5 in May 2004 and will return, although as of July 2005 it does not appear on NBC's fall schedule, and the network has not specified a return date. The show is expected to return in mid season.


In July 2005, Comedy Central announced that it had acquired syndication rights to the first five seasons of the show and will begin airing them in the fall of 2006.


In its first three seasons, Scrubs received Emmy nominations for casting, editing, and writing of a comedy series. Following its fourth season, the show received additional nominations for Best Comedy Series, Best Lead Actor in a Comedy Series (Zach Braff), Best Editing for a Multi-Camera series (although the series is predominantly shot single-camera, Episode 20 of Season 4, "My Life in Four Cameras", has a brief segment shot multi-camera, sitcom-style), and casting. The show also won the 2002 Humanitas Prize, 30 minute category, for the episode 'My Old Lady'.


    * The show is filmed in an actual abandoned hospital (the old North Hollywood Medical Center), with most of the props and items on the show having been supplied by the cast and crew. This allows for the crew to film exteriors at the same site as interiors. However, many of the exterior shots of the main entrance to the hospital, particularly during Season One, are not from the North Hollywood Medical Center.

    * Although initially only a recurring guest character, Neil Flynn was promoted to a main character in season 2. If the show was cancelled in its first season, it would have been revealed that the Janitor was simply a figment of JD's imagination.

    * Although we hear much about Dr. Kelso's wife Enid (nicknamed Bunny), she is seen only once, from behind and in a flashback, in episode 3-15, "My Tormented Mentor". His son, who (as of Season 3) resides in the Portland Subway System and is strongly implied to have homosexual tendencies, remains an unseen character.

    * The title sequence is quick and does not even feature credits (they roll after the sequence), but merely fast-moving pictures of the cast at work in the hospital. At the start of season 2, a longer opening credits sequence was added which featured recurring characters and credits, but was deemed to be too long by NBC who wanted to use more time for the episodes, so the sequence was quickly deleted. In occasional episodes, where they are running particularly short on time, only a brief title card saying 'Scrubs' and 'created by Bill Lawrence' appears. The chest X-ray in the title sequence was hung backwards during the first season, then corrected briefly for season 2, but then returned to being backwards. Bill Lawrence states that having the X-ray backwards was intentional as it signified that the new interns were inexperienced.

    * Sam Lloyd formed a band in college with George Miserlis, Paul Perry and Philip McNiven. In an episode of season one, they guest starred appearing as Ted the lawyer's group of singers (named the Worthless Peons) who all work at the hospital, and appeared twice in season two. Their repertoire on the show included singing television themes (both old tv shows and primetime ones), and singing telegrams that resemble advertising jingles. In an episode near the end of season three, one of the band members quit, but by the season four episode, My Ocardial Infarction, the band were back together as they attempted to outperform the Janitor's band of hospital service staff (named 'Hibbleton').

    * The titles are also often riffs on pop culture (as, indeed, is the entire show); the best abuse of the rules is probably "My Ocardial Infarction", a twisted reference to the medical name for a heart attack.

    * Most of the episodes are narrated by J.D., and the episode titles usually start with "My...". As of October 2004 three episodes have been narrated by other characters : "His Story" (narrated by Dr. Cox); "His Story II" (Turk) and "Her Story" (Elliot).

    * Tom Cavanagh was especially hired to play J.D.'s brother because of his uncanny physical resemblance to Zach Braff.

    * A 2002 episode "My Old Lady" won a Humanitas Prize in the 30 Minute Category. Also in 2002, it won an Artios award for Best Casting for TV, Comedy Pilot from the Casting Society of America. In 2003, it won the BMI TV Music Award. It has been nominated for three Emmys, and numerous other awards.

    * As of 2005, all but one of the women J.D. has slept with since the start of the series have had unisex names, the exception being Neena.

    * Several Scrubs crew members have appeared in minor speaking roles, for example writers Gabrielle Allan and Mike Schwartz. Schwartz has a recurring role as a delivery man.

    * In episode 4.9 "My Malpractical Decision" Turk changes his cellphone number to 1-916-CALL-TURK. Writer Bill Lawrence actually registered this number, and a few curious callers were surprised when cast or crew members answered the phone, which is placed on the set. The number usually takes you to a voice message which tells you the latest information regarding Scrubs.

    * Neil Flynn is an experienced improv comedian, and as such, ad-libs many of his lines. The writers specify what outcome a scene with the Janitor should have, and Flynn fills in the dialogue.

    * Former Men at Work frontman Colin Hay's music has appeared in multiple episodes of Scrubs. Episode 1-24 featured the song Beautiful World, 2-01 had Hay himself playing his acoustic version of the Men at Work song Overkill while following J.D. around the hospital, 2-13 ended with the staff singing Hay's song Waiting for My Real Life to Begin, in 3-13, Braff sang part of the Men at Work hit Down Under, and 4-17 included Hay singing the Cheers theme song.

    * Dr. Cox's habit of refering to JD by a girl's names was put in the show after the writers noticed John McGinley doing the same thing to Zach Braff.
          o Variations on the theme include Cox calling JD the names of female pop singers' and famous dogs following "bestiality rumours".

    * Episode 1.23 "My Hero" features a shot of a white-board displaying the characters’ new rotations. In addition to recognizable character surnames the board also features the names Spiller (surname of episode director Michael Spiller) and Lawrence (a reference to series creator, executive producer and sometime director Bill Lawrence).

    * Episode 4.25 JD moves out of his and Turks apartment, his new roomnumber is 47 - often seen as the most reappearing random number in the universe, there are even special internet forums created just for discussing the phenomenon of number 47.

External links



Sesame Street

Sesame Street is an educational television program designed for children of all ages, and is recognized as a pioneer of the present-day standard of combining education and entertainment in children's television shows. It is well-known for the inclusion of the Muppet characters created by the legendary puppeteer Jim Henson. More than 4,000 episodes of the show have been produced in 36 seasons, making it one of the longest-running shows in television history.

Sesame Street is produced in the United States by Sesame Workshop, formerly known as the Children's Television Workshop (CTW). The show premiered on November 10, 1969, on the National Educational Television network, and later that year moved to NET's successor, the Public Broadcasting Service.

Through its worldwide influence, Sesame Street and other Sesame Workshop productions have earned the distinction of being the world's largest informal educator of young children[1], by viewers, international recognition, and outstanding success. The original series has aired in 120 countries, and more than 20 international versions have also aired. In its long and illustrious history, Sesame Street has received more Emmy Awards than any other program, and has captured the allegiance, esteem, and affections of millions of viewers worldwide.


The program uses a mixture of puppets, animation, and live action to teach young children the fundamentals of reading (letter and word recognition), arithmetic (numbers, addition and subtraction), colors, and the concept of time (clocks and days of the week). It also has segments which focus on basic life skills, such as how to cross the road safely and the importance of good hygiene and healthy eating. Many of the skits and segments are parodies or copies of standard television formats.

There is also a subtle sense of humor in the show that has appealed to older viewers since it first premiered. A number of spoofs and parodies of popular culture appear on the show, especially ones aimed at the Public Broadcasting Service, the network that airs the show. For example, during the "Me Claudius" segment, the children viewing the show might enjoy watching Cookie Monster and the Muppets, while adults watching the same sequence may enjoy the spoof of the Masterpiece Theatre production of I, Claudius; this series of segments is known as "Monsterpiece Theater."

Several of the characters on the program were conceived to attract an older audience, such as the character Flo Bear (Flaubert), Sherlock Hemlock (a Sherlock Holmes parody), and H. Ross Parrot (based on Reform Party founder Ross Perot). Well over two hundred notable personalities, from celebrities like James Brown to political figures such as Kofi Annan, have made guest appearances on the show. Wikipedia's list includes 179 different individual/group appearances, and does not include multiple appearances. The inclusion of sophisticated humor is purposely intended to encourage parents to watch with their children. By making the show something that not only educates and entertains kids, but also keeps parents entertained and involved in the educational process, the producers hope that more discussion about the concepts on the show will occur.

History of the show

    Main article: History of Sesame Street

The show's original format called for the humans to be shown in plots on the street, intermixed with the segments of animation, live-action shorts and Muppets. These segments were created to be like commercials—quick, catchy and memorable—and made the learning experience much more like fun. The format became a model for what is known today as edutainment-based programs.

CTW aired the program for test groups to determine if the revolutionary new format was likely to succeed. Results showed that test watchers were entranced when the ad-like segments aired, especially those with the jovial puppets, but were remarkably less interested in the street scenes. It was a quick and easy choice for the producers to add Muppets to the street scenes, although psychologists had warned against a mixture of fantasy and reality elements. A simple dose of cartoon-like characters let the humans deliver messages without causing such viewer disinterest.

Sesame Street, along with several other Sesame Workshop–produced shows (such as The Electric Company, produced when the company was still CTW) are all taped in New York City. Originally, they were taped at the Teletape Studios at 81st and Broadway in Manhattan until Teletape's parent company Reeves Entertainment went bankrupt. The show was then moved to and remains to this day at the Kaufman Astoria Studios in neighboring Queens.

Broadcast history

    Main article: Major characters in international versions

The show is broadcast worldwide; in addition to the U.S. version, many countries have locally produced versions adapted to local needs, some with their own characters, and in a variety of different languages. Broadcasts in Australia began in 1971. In Canada, beginning in 1970, 15-minute shows called Canada's Sesame Street were broadcast, and by 1972 an edited version of the one-hour American program was airing featuring specially filmed Canadian segments. In 1995, the American version was replaced by a half-hour, all-Canadian version of the series entitled Sesame Park, which never quite caught on and was cancelled in 2002. One hundred and twenty countries have aired the show, many of which partnered with Sesame Workshop to create local versions.

In recent years, Sesame Street has made monumental advances in its international versions. In the late 1990s, versions popped up in China and Russia, as these countries shifted away from communism. There is also a joint Israeli-Palestinian-Jordanian project, called Sesame Stories, which was created with the goal of promoting greater cultural understanding.

The show has also spawned the spin-off series Play with Me Sesame, the "classics" show Sesame Street Unpaved, and the segment-only series Open Sesame. Elmo's World and Global Grover, both segments on Sesame Street, have been distributed as individual series.

Funding for season 35 of Sesame Street is provided for the Ready To Learn The No Child Left Behind Act and the U.S. Department of Education, The Public Broadcasting Service, Chuck E. Cheese's, and McDonald's. Major funding for Sesame Street is provided by The Corporation for Public Broadcasting and by contributions to your PBS station from "Viewers Like You".


As a result of its success in revolutionizing the standards of children's television, Sesame Street has inadvertently diminished its own audience share. According to PBS Research, the show has gone from a 2.0 average on Nielsen Media Research's "people meters" in 1995–96 to a 1.3 average in 2000–01. Even with this decrease, Sesame Street's viewership in an average week comes from roughly 5.6 million households with 7.5 million viewers.

This places Sesame at 8th place in the overall kids' charts, as of 2002. It is actually the second most-watched children's television series for mothers aged 18–49 who have children under the age of 3.

A format change has recently helped the show's ratings, boosting them up 31% in February 2002 among children aged 2 to 5, in comparison to its ratings in 2001.

Rosita poses.
Rosita poses.
Fat Blue (left) with Grover, in A Celebration of Me, Grover
Fat Blue (left) with Grover, in A Celebration of Me, Grover
Oscar the Grouch, peering out of his can.
Oscar the Grouch, peering out of his can.
Gabby, Elmo, and some kids sing the Kitten-Bird-Cow song, in front of 123 Sesame Street.
Gabby, Elmo, and some kids sing the Kitten-Bird-Cow song, in front of 123 Sesame Street.
Bob singing "People in Your Neighborhood" with Ralph Nader.
Bob singing "People in Your Neighborhood" with Ralph Nader.

    Main article: List of Sesame Street characters
    Also characters that are Exclusive to books or movies, Grouches, Monsters, celebrities, from international versions. Also Characters ordered by date of debut, Characters ordered by last known appearance,

Sesame Street has a strong multicultural element and is inclusive in its casting, incorporating roles for disabled people, young people, senior citizens, Hispanic actors, Black actors, and others. While some of the puppets look like people, others are animal or "monster" puppets of different sizes and colors. This encourages children to believe that people come in all different shapes, sizes, and colors, and that no particular physical "type" is any better than another.

One major aspect of this "multicultural element" is that the show pioneered the idea of occasionally inserting very basic Spanish words and phrases to give young children a "feel" for a foreign language, doing so almost three decades before Dora the Explorer debuted on Nickelodeon. Perhaps in response to the popularity of Dora, the recently revamped format gives Rosita, the bilingual muppet who "immigrated" in 1993 from the Mexican version of the show, more time in front of viewers, and also introduced the more formalized "Spanish Word of the Day" in every episode.

Each of the puppet characters has been designed to represent a specific stage or element of early childhood, and the scripts are written so that the character reflects the development level of children of that age. This helps the show address not only the learning objectives of various age groups, but also the concerns, fears, and interests of children of different age levels.

The Muppets

Big Bird, an eight-foot-tall yellow canary, lives in a large nest on an abandoned lot near 123 Sesame Street, located behind the building's garbage heap. A regular visitor to Big Bird is Aloysius Snuffleupagus, known simply as Snuffy. Oscar the Grouch and his pet worm Slimey live in a garbage can in the heap. Friends Ernie and Bert room together at the apartment of 123 Sesame Street, where they regularly engage in comedic banter. Ernie's flowerbox was once a hotspot for Twiddlebugs, a colorful family of insects.

The Bear family of Goldilocks and the Three Bears resides in Sesame Street. The Jewish family headed by Papa Bear and Mama Bear welcomed Curly Bear, a second child. Baby Bear meanwhile is a good friend with monsters Telly, Zoe, Mexico-born Rosita and Elmo. Elmo has his own segment near the end of each episode, in which viewers explore topics in Elmo's World, an imaginary version of his house.

Grover's regular segment follows the "cute, furry monster" around the world, exploring local cultures and traditions. Cookie Monster fights with his conscience daily, during Letter of the Day. He tries to control his urges to eat the letters, shown as icing on cookies; Prairie Dawn often attempts to help Cookie not eat the letter, always leaving frazzled. Count von Count has fewer problems during the Number of the Day segment, where he indulges in counting until the mystery number is revealed by his pipe organ.

Humphrey and Ingrid ran The Furry Arms with baby Natasha in tow; while bellhop Benny Rabbit begrudgingly helps out.

Kermit the Frog hosted the segment Sesame Street News Flash. The Two-Headed Monster sounded out words coming together, and the Yip-Yip aliens discovered telephones and typewriters. For two seasons, Googel, Narf, Mel and Phoebe hung out in the Monster's Clubhouse.

Other incidental characters include television personality Guy Smiley, construction workers Sully & Biff, the large Herry Monster (who does not know his own strength), and The Big Bad Wolf, who is not a terror to the Street. Forgetful Jones, a cowboy with a short-term memory, rode his trusty Buster the Horse with his girlfriend Clementine; Rodeo Rosie was an early cowgirl.

The humans

    Main article: Human characters on Sesame Street

A slate of human regulars pull the zaniness of the Muppets back to reality. They were not always meant to serve this purpose. The show lost test viewers' attention during the Street Scenes, meaning Muppets needed to be added, like sugar into medicine.

Music teacher Bob has been on Sesame Street since its inception. He dated Linda the local New York Library librarian, who was the first regular deaf character on television. Linda owns Barkley, a Muppet dog. The Robinsons are an African-American family that includes schoolteacher Gordon, nurse Susan, and adopted son Miles. The Puerto Rican Rodriguezes include Maria and Luis, who ran the Fix-It Shop, which was turned into the Mail-It Shop; Maria gave birth to daughter Gabby in the 1980s, and her pregnancy was covered on the show.

Candy store operator Harold Hooper was a mainstay, at Mr. Hooper's Store. When he died in the early 1980s (an event discussed in a landmark episode of Sesame Street), his apprentice David took over, followed by later owners Gina, Mr. Handford, and Alan. Gina stopped running the store in the 1990s, to earn a PhD and become a vet.

The Noodles on Elmo's World are meant to provide a vaudevillian perspective on subjects, contrary to most of the show's human characters.

Famous guest stars and various children from New York schools and day-care centers are a constantly changing part of the cast.

Regional variations of the show

Some countries have actually created their own completely unique versions of Sesame Street, in which the characters and segments represent their country's cultures. Other countries simply air a dubbed version of Sesame Street, or a dubbed version of Open Sesame. Among various other countries, the UK simply broadcast the American show.

Locally produced adaptations of Sesame Street, include:

    * 1972: Vila S鐃�amo, Brazil
    * 1972: Plaza S鐃�amo, Mexico
    * 1973: Sesamstra鐃�, Germany
    * 1973: Canadian Sesame Street, Canada (reformatted as Sesame Park in the 1990s)
    * 1976: Sesamstraat, Netherlands
    * 1978: 1, rue Sesame, France
    * 1979: Iftah Ya Simsim, Kuwait
    * 1979: Barrio S鐃�amo, Spain
    * 1981: Svenska Sesam, Sweden
    * 1983: Rechov Sumsum, Israel
    * 1984: Sesame! (Batibot), Philippines
    * 1989: Susam Sokagi, Turkey
    * 1989: Rua S鐃�amo, Portugal
    * 1991: Sesam Stasjon, Norway
    * 1996: Ulitsa Sezam, Russia
    * 1996: Ulica Sezamkowa, Poland
    * 1998: Rechov Sumsum and Shara's Simsim, Israel and Palestinian Territories
    * 1998: Zhima Jie, China
    * 2000: Takalani Sesame, South Africa
    * 2000: Alam Simsim, Egypt
    * 2004: Sesame Street, Japan
    * 2006?: Sesame India, with radio program

Other countries include Greece (on ERT, later on a private network), Poland and Mexico. In 2004, one Japanese network cancelled the dubbed American Sesame, while another created a local version. Sesame Street was axed in recent years from Britain.


Sesame Street has had a rigourous research standard since its foundation, to make sure that the programming is fulfilling the needs of viewers. The Education and Research (E&R) department of Sesame Workshop is currently headed by Rosemarie T. Truglio, Ph.D. and Jeanette Betancourt, Ed.D..

When Truglio was ask on the level of interaction between Education and Research, Content, and Production working together is "[i]ntimately·hand-in-hand. They are not creating anything without our knowledge, our guidance and our review. We are involved in content development across all media platforms." This close-knit organizational structure has been around since the start of the Workshop.

Sesame Workshop provides great volumes of content on its website since 1998[2], and others like Random House.[3] Content ranges from birth to school-age, and includes information on dozens of topics like proper parenting techniques, dealing with children's fears, development of literacy, and maintaining a good level of health.

Research is funded by government grants, corporate and private donations (including recently from The Prudential Foundation for the Sesame Beginnings program), and the profits gained from Sesame Workshop merchandise.

When writers create a plot for a Street scene or segment, the content is reviewed by the E&R team reviews the script. They have the power to outright deny a script, and force rewrites, if the content is "is flat out wrong". Presuming the script is factually on track, but has gray areas such as things that may not be comprehensible to children, the writers and E&R work together to tweak everything to be factually correct, but include "a balance between content and humor".

Healthy Habits for Life

In 2005, Sesame Street launched its Healthy Habits for Life programming, to encourage young viewers to led a more active and nutritious lifestyle. This was spurred on by data on obesity in children by the US Centers for Disease Control.

Health content has existed on Sesame Street for years, but in limited quantities. Once the press kits for the project were made available, and news wires latched onto the story, literaly hundreds of newspapers touted that Cookie Monster was "going on a diet". In actuality, there was no change to Cookie's character. The new season featured a new segment with rapper Wyclef Jean, singing the praises of fruits and vegetables. Like segments in the 1990s featured Cookie doing nearly the same.

According to people from Sesame Workshop, "Health has always been a part of our Sesame Street curriculum, therefore we will always be committed to ensuring kids are given information and messages that will help them become healthy and happy in their development. For season 36, we have turned up the dial in health, but it will always be part of our curriculum."

The Workshop formed an Advisory Board, consisting of experts like Woodie Kessel, M.D., M.P.H., the Assistant Surgeon General of the United States government. This Board not only looks at outside research, but lead pilot studies to find which directs to go in for expanded research, based on social, ethnic and socioeconomic sections of the population.

The cover of the book Brought to You by . . . Sesame Street #1! shows several of Sesame Street's muppet characters.
The cover of the book Brought to You by . . . Sesame Street #1! shows several of Sesame Street's muppet characters.

Sesame Street is known for its extensive merchandising, which includes many books, magazines, video/audio media, toys, and the "Tickle Me Elmo" craze.

Its fiction books, published primarily by Random House, always display a notice stating that money received from the sale of the publications is used to fund Sesame Workshop, and often mention that children do not have to watch the show to benefit from its publications.

Today there is a live touring show, Sesame Street Live, which has toured since 1980. There is also the Sesame Place theme park in Langhorne, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia (USA), and a Plaza S鐃�amo theme park in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. In addition, there is a three-dimensional movie based on the show, at Universal Studios Japan.

Current licensors include Nakajima USA, Build-A-Bear Workshop (Build-An-Elmo), Hasbro (Sesame Street Monopoly), Wooly Willy, and Children’s Apparel Network. For Sesamstaat, Rubotoys is a licensor since February 2005.

The Sesame Beginnings line, launched in mid-2005, consists of apparel, health and body, home, and seasonal products. The line is targeted towards infants and their parents, and products are designed to increase interactivity. Most of the line is exclusive to a family of Canadian retailers that includes Loblaws, Fortinos, and Zehrs.[4]

In 2004, Copyright Promotions Licensing Group (CPLG) became Sesame Workshop's licensing representative for The Benelux.

Movies, videos, and specials

This list is incomplete, but highlights the most important specials.

Television specials and telefilms

    * Julie on Sesame Street (1974, starring Julie Andrews)

Christmas Eve on Sesame Street scene with Oscar (in garbage can) and Big Bird at the 86th Street New York City Subway station.
Christmas Eve on Sesame Street scene with Oscar (in garbage can) and Big Bird at the 86th Street New York City Subway station.

    * Christmas Eve on Sesame Street (1978)
    * A Special Sesame Street Christmas (1978)
    * Big Bird in China (1983)
    * Don't Eat the Pictures: Sesame Street at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (1983)
    * The Adventures of Super Grover (1987)
    * Big Bird Brings Spring to Sesame Street (1987)
    * Big Bird in Japan (1988)
    * Sesame Street: 20 And Still Counting (1989)
    * Sesame Street Special (1988, released to DVD as Put Down The Duckie: A Sesame Street Special)
    * Big Bird's Birthday Celebration (1991)
    * Sesame Street Stays Up Late! (1993)
    * All-Star 25th Birthday: Stars and Street Forever (1994)
    * CinderElmo (1999)
    * The Street We Live On(2004)


Feature films
Follow that Bird feature film DVD cover.
Follow that Bird feature film DVD cover.
The Street We Live On DVD cover depicts (counter-clockwise from left) Elmo, Zoe, Grover, and Ernie.
The Street We Live On DVD cover depicts (counter-clockwise from left) Elmo, Zoe, Grover, and Ernie.

    * Sesame Street Presents: Follow That Bird (1985, co-produced by Warner Bros.)
    * Elmo in Grouchland (1999, co-produced by Columbia Pictures)



During the 1980s videos were distributed by Random House. Since the early 1990s their tapes (and now DVDs) have been distributed by Sony Wonder, as has their music. Many of the TV specials have been released on tape and/or DVD.

    * Sesame Street - Learning About Letters (1990, DVD on June 8, 2004)
    * Sesame Street's 25th Anniversary: A Musical Celebration (1993, DVD on August 31, 1999)
    * Elmo Saves Christmas (1996)
    * Sesame Street - Do the Alphabet (1996, DVD on November 9, 1999)
    * Sesame Street - The Best of Elmo (1996, DVD on November 20, 2001)
    * Sesame Street - 123 Count With Me (1997, DVD on December 7, 1999)
    * Elmopalooza (1999)
    * Sesame Street - Elmo's World - Happy Holidays (2000, DVD on September 16, 2003)
    * Sesame Street - Kids' Favorite Songs (DVD on November 20, 2001)
    * Three Bears and a New Baby (2003)
    * Sesame Street Songs - Dance Along! (DVD on March 11, 2003)
    * Sesame Street - What's the Name of That Song (DVD on April 6, 2004)
    * Sesame Street - The Street We Live On (DVD in 2004)


Controversy and rumors

Some educators criticized the show when it debuted, feeling that it would only worsen children's attention spans. This concern still exists today, although there is no conclusive proof of this being the case, even after more than 35 seasons of televised shows.

Although extremely popular with children, the character of Elmo is very controversial. When first introduced, he was a minor character with no lines. He even appeared briefly (and silently) in the Sesame Street movie Follow That Bird. However, following the death of muppeteers Jim Henson and Richard Hunt in 1992, a number of muppet characters were retired, elevating Elmo to a more prominent role. Elmo quickly replaced Big Bird as the central character of the program, eclipsing the other muppet characters to the point that a full 20 minutes of the one-hour program became devoted solely to "Elmo's World", a segment that came to be viewed by many as dubious. Critical support of the program began to wane, as educators quickly noted that "Elmo's World" contained little to no educational value, and in fact often contained misinformation (such as Elmo incorrectly informing children that a horse in a picture is a "pony"). It is believed that Jim Henson had never intended Elmo to literally "run the show" as he now does. A critical blow had been struck to the venerable program, and rating dropped as parents tuned out. Sesame Street was no longer one of the best shows on TV for kids, and parents began to embrace other programs, such as Blue's Clues. Not understanding the reason for the drop in ratings, writers gave Sesame Street an overhaul, yet completely failed to dethrone Elmo. New videos feature Elmo almost exclusively, and the 2nd Sesame Street movie Elmo in Grouchland features only a couple of series regulars, and the main body of the story does not even take place on Sesame Street. The rise of Elmo is generally considered to be the moment when Sesame Street jumped the shark, although some fans contend that it was actually the rise of Sonia Manzano, whose character Maria Rodriguez, has eclipsed the other human characters in the same manner that Elmo has eclipsed the other muppets. Coincidentally, this began when Sonia began writing for the show.

Urban legend has it that Bert and Ernie are engaged in a homosexual relationship, as they are apparently adult human males portrayed sharing a bedroom (though with separate beds). The producers vehemently deny this, however, insisting that the characters are "merely lifeless, hand-operated puppets."[5] The pair's relationship bears similarity to that of Laurel and Hardy, who were also occasionally shown sleeping together; this became such a comedy staple as to be adopted by Morecambe and Wise in the 1970s, all of whom were similarly asexual. The Odd Couple is another contemporary comparison.

In 1992, puppeteer Jim Henson's death spurred rumors that Ernie would be "killed" off the show, much the way the character of Mr. Hooper was after actor Will Lee's passing some years earlier. Rumor said that he would be either killed by a vehicle, AIDS, or cancer. There is no legitimacy to this rumor, but as producers took their time recasting a puppeteer for Ernie, this delay allowed the claims to burgeon.

In 2002, Sesame Workshop announced that a HIV-positive character would be introduced to Takalani Sesame, the South African version of the show. Many conservatives and religious groups wrongly presumed that the American version would be getting a "gay Muppet", but the HIV-positive character is only present on this international version of the show.


    * The Sesame Street theme song is "(Can you tell me how to get, how to get to) Sesame Street". Harmonica legend Toots Thielemans plays the song as a solo in some versions of the sequence.
    * A portmanteaus of Sesame Street has been made.



   1. ^  Karen Barss et al., "Enhancing Education: A Children's Producer's Guide: Sesame Street: Case Study", Corporation for Public Broadcasting (accessed June 29, 2005)
   2. ^  San Vicente, Romeo: "Bert and Ernie outed from film festival", PlanetOut, (March 27, 2002)
   3. ^  Moreau, Nicholas: "Sesame Beginnings are new infant products", Suite101, (May 5, 2005)


See also

    * Sesame Street, Season 35
    * The Annual Sesame Street Cookie Baking Contest

Direct and indirect parodies:

    * Avenue Q, a Broadway musical that mirror various elements of the show.


    * List of Sesame Street animators
    * Bibliography of fictional works based on the show
    * Sesame Street discography
    * List of Sesame Street puppeteers
    * List of songs from Sesame Street



    * David Borgenicht, Sesame Street Unpaved: Scripts, Stories, Secrets, and Songs, 1998 and 2002 reprint, ISBN 1402893272
    * Caroll Spinney, J. Milligan, The Wisdom of Big Bird: (And the Dark Genius of Oscar the Grouch): Lessons from a Life in Feathers, 2003, ISBN 0375507817
    * Christopher Finch, Jim Henson: The Works - The Art, the Magic, the Imagination, 1993, ISBN 0679412034
    * Shalom M. Fisch, Rosemarie T. Truglio, "G" Is for Growing: 30 Years of Research on Children and Sesame Street, 2000, ISBN 0805833951

External links


Sex and the City


Format  Comedy
Run time  30 Minutes
Creator  Darren Star
Starring  Sarah Jessica Parker
Kristin Davis
Cynthia Nixon
Kim Cattrall
Country  USA
Network  HBO
Original run  June 6, 1998–February 22, 2004
No. of episodes  94

Sex and the City is an American cable television program based on the book of the same name. It was originally broadcast on the HBO network from 1998 until 2004. Set in New York City, the show focuses on the sex lives of four female best friends, three of whom are in their mid-to-late thirties and one of whom, Samantha, is in her forties. A sitcom with soap opera elements, the show often tackled socially relevant issues such as the status of women in society. Sex and the City premiered on June 6, 1998, and the last original episode aired on February 22, 2004.

    * 1 Overview
    * 2 Characters
          o 2.1 Main characters
          o 2.2 Recurring characters
                + 2.2.1 Friends
                + 2.2.2 Boyfriends
                      # Carrie's boyfriends
                      # Charlotte's boyfriends
                      # Miranda's boyfriends
                      # Samantha's boyfriends
                + 2.2.3 Cameos
    * 3 Episodes
          o 3.1 Season 1 (1998)
          o 3.2 Season 2 (1999)
          o 3.3 Season 3 (2000)
          o 3.4 Season 4 (2001-2002)
          o 3.5 Season 5 (2002)
          o 3.6 Season 6 (2003-2004)
          o 3.7 Clip Shows
    * 4 Quotations
    * 5 Broadcasters
    * 6 Criticism
    * 7 External links



The show's narrator is sex and love columnist Carrie Bradshaw (Sarah Jessica Parker). Her best friends are Charlotte York (Kristin Davis), a traditional and relatively conservative art gallery owner, Miranda Hobbes (Cynthia Nixon), a cynical, career-minded lawyer, and Samantha Jones (Kim Cattrall), a wild-living, fun-loving publicist who stops at nothing to get the men she wants.

The show consistently achieved both critical and popular acclaim. By the fourth season, many elements of the series, such as the overall tone and the characters, diverged considerably from the book. The show's girl talk, dating games, and fashion cemented it firmly in modern popular culture. The character Carrie is an oft-referenced fashion icon known for her fancy clothes and shoes (mostly Patricia Fields, Jimmy Choos and Manolo Blahniks).

Season one of Sex and the City aired on HBO from June to August 1998. The second season was broadcast from June until October 1999. Season three aired from June until October 2000. The fourth season was broadcast in two parts: from June until August 2001, and then in January and February 2002. A fifth season, truncated due to Parker's pregnancy, aired on HBO during the summer of 2002. The 20 episodes of the final season, season six, aired in two parts: from June until September 2003 and during January and February 2004.

In the first season, each episode featured a short montage of interviews that Carrie supposedly conducted while researching her column. These continued through the second season, then were phased out.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Main characters
Carrie Bradshaw
Carrie Bradshaw
The women of Sex and the City
The women of Sex and the City

    * Carrie Bradshaw (Sarah Jessica Parker) writes a weekly sex column titled "Sex and the City" for the fictitious New York Star. She provides the show's narration, which is structured around her train of thought while writing the column. Her columns are eventually turned into a book, and she is also a contributing writer for Vogue beginning at the end of season 4. Despite her apparently modest income, she always dons the latest fashions, in one episode spending over a thousand dollars on a pair of shoes. Her main addictions are her Manolo Blahnik shoes and cigarettes (which she sporadically tries to give up). She lives in a small 1-bedroom rent-controlled apartment in the Upper East Side, which she now owns with the help of Charlotte. In a later season episode, the audience briefly glimpses a much darker, more introspective Carrie, when she finally voices her long-held regrets about a snap-decision abortion she had in the 1980s after a one-night stand.
    * Charlotte York (Kristin Davis) is an art dealer with a blue-blooded upbringing. She is the most conservative and traditional of the group, and the one who places the most emphasis on emotional love in a relationship as opposed to sex, and is always searching for her "knight in shining armor". She gives up her successful career shortly after her marriage with Trey, and resides in a posh apartment on Park Avenue. She eventually divorces Trey due in part to his unhealthy, Norman Bates-type relationship with his mother, and ends up marrying a homely but saintly divorce attorney. She is the only one of the four girls that marries twice. She is also a graduate of Smith College.
    * Miranda Hobbes (Cynthia Nixon) is a career-minded lawyer with extremely cynical views on relationships and men. She lives in the West Side but relocates to Brooklyn in the final season. She is Carrie's confidante and voice of reason. In the early seasons, she is portrayed as masculine and borderline misandric, but this image softens over the years. She participated in an on-again, off-again relationship with nerd Steve, whom she finally became pregnant by. After debating getting an abortion behind Steve's back, she eventually decided to have the baby, and in the final season married Steve. She is a graduate of Harvard University.
    * Samantha Jones (Kim Cattrall), the oldest and most promiscious of the group, is an independent publicist whose relationship pattern could be considered stereotypically masculine. She is a seductress who primarily engages in relationships purely for sex, avoiding emotional involvement at all costs. Her conquests are all based purely on physical appearance. She lives in the fashionable meatpacking district. During the entire six seasons, she only has three relationships: one with a playboy, one with a lesbian, and another with a sexy, young actor whom she finally ends up living with. In the episode in which Miranda contemplates an abortion, Samantha reveals that she's had two.


Recurring characters


    * Stanford Blatch (Willie Garson), a gay fashionista, is Carrie's best friend outside the group and often attends parties with her. He is a talent agent. He is partnered to Marcus, a Broadway dancer.
    * Anthony Marentino (Mario Cantone) is Charlotte's wedding planner who becomes a close friend. He often tries to cheer her up and encourage her to continue dating after her failed marriage.



All the boyfriends listed below were the focus of a significant story arc spanning multiple episodes. Additionally, the four main characters all went on dates or had sex when they were single – often with male characters (and in Samantha's case, one female character) who appeared in only one, two, or at most three episodes of the program.

Carrie's boyfriends
Chris Noth as Mr. Big
Chris Noth as Mr. Big

    * Mr. Big (Chris Noth) both excites and eludes Carrie through the run of the show, as she always believes he is the man for her but many times he's not able to fulfill her emotional needs. He is a wealthy financier (Samantha calls him "the next Donald Trump" in the first episode) who is several years older then Carrie, who never forgets to joke about their age difference. They meet in the first episode and soon begin a serious relationship. Carrie breaks up with Big at the end of season 1 because he refuses to open up his life for her. After they reunite, the intensity of their feelings is the same again with more romance, but eventually old patterns repeat themselves, and even when they try to resolve them, Big still is not ready to give Carrie the kind of love that she needs. They break up again towards the end of season 2 before he goes to Paris, where his company has temporarily assigned him. To Carrie's shock, Big, who had commitment issues with her, soon after becomes engaged to Natasha, a modelesque woman in her 20s whom Carrie refers to as "the idiot stick figure with no soul". They had a whirlwind romance in Paris, and she is the "simple" kind of woman he seems to want; they do not have the kind of intensity and drama that he and Carrie had. He stays in Carrie's life as a close friend until he realizes that he had made a mistake in getting married, feels that his new life is dull, and tells Carrie that he wants to be with her and he loves her. At first Carrie is enraged at him but gives into her feelings for him that won't go away. Emotionally torn between him and Aidan, she has a short love affair with Big. The effects are devastating to everyone involved and Carrie finds herself alone again. She and Big remain close friends, but Carrie says to him that their love is "a good idea in theory but doesn't work" and he bemusedly agrees. Their feelings linger below the surface though, so they remain flirtatious friends during the times when Carrie is between relationships. Eventually he moves to California, but returns to New York for an angioplasty and "opens his heart" to her as well, but soon closes his emotions again. Finally, at the very end of the series, Big flew to Paris to tell Carrie she was "the one". Throughout the show Big's name is never used, with the girls referring to him only as Big or Mr. Big. It is not until the last episode that his name is revealed to be John.

John Corbett as Aidan Shaw
John Corbett as Aidan Shaw

    * Aidan Shaw (John Corbett) is one of Carrie's few long-term boyfriends. He is a furniture designer and he met Carrie when Stanford and Carrie went to his furniture store. They break up after her affair with Big, but rekindle the relationship. He eventually proposes to her, but later she realizes that she is not ready to commit to him on the same level that he needs. She wants to maintain their relationship and says she will be ready to marry him in time, but he ends it, assuming that she will never want to marry him. She loves Aidan, but perhaps not like she has always loved Big – not in that same "big" way. Aidan was the comfort and romance that she needed after tumultuous times and nurtured; he showed her the gentle, giving side of love. He cherished her in a way that Big was not able to most of the time. When Carrie ran into Aidan at the beginning of the last season (6), he is married and is father to a boy.
    * Jack Berger (Ron Livingston) is a writer who Carrie dates in season 6. At first, they seem like the perfect couple, but their relationship came to a screeching halt when Carrie's career heated up just as Berger's cooled down, something he was never able to deal with. He snuck out in the middle of the night and broke up with her on a Post-it note.
    * Aleksandr Petrovsky (Mikhail Baryshnikov) is a famous artist who becomes Carrie's lover in season 6. He sweeps her off of her feet, but eventually, she wants the relationship to be deeper than a storybook romance. She accepts Petrovsky's invitation to move to Paris with him, as she needs a lasting love in her life and irrationally fears that past a certain age love could be hard to find again. But after spending some time there, she realizes that he will never reciprocate the level of emotional involvement that she wants since his career will always come first, and she cannot keep her mind off Mr. Big.


Charlotte's boyfriends

    * Trey MacDougal (Kyle MacLachlan) fits Charlotte's knight in shining armor archetype to a tee, and eventually she marries him (after she proposes to him at dinner and he says "all righty"). They have marital problems from the beginning, mostly centered around his erectile dysfunction, and things escalate when Charlotte finds out it would be very difficult for her to have a baby, which she deeply desires. Eventually, they separate and divorce.
    * Harry Goldenblatt (Evan Handler) is Charlotte's divorce lawyer. Although he is not even in the ballpark of Charlotte's ideal man in that he is short, bald, hairy and often somewhat crude, they fall in love. Harry refuses to marry a non-Jew, so Charlotte the Episcopalian Princess converts to Judaism. After this, they have a falling out and break up. Eventually, Harry returns and proposes to Charlotte, and they marry. After that, they adopt a Chinese baby girl (after Charlotte becomes pregnant and has a miscarriage).


Miranda's boyfriends

    * Skipper Johnson (Ben Weber) is a geeky, sensitive twentysomething who is friends with Carrie, then becomes Miranda's boyfriend in season 1. The relationship doesn't last because Miranda does not want the same level of commitment.
    * Robert Leeds (Blair Underwood), a physician who moves into her building during the sixth season, is the seemingly perfect man: successful, sexy and utterly devoted to her. Robert and Miranda have lots of fun and great chemistry, but when he leaves her a giant chocolate chip cookie that says, "I Love You," Miranda panics, devours the entire thing, then tries to ignore it. She realizes that, despite all the idyllic aspects of her relationship with Robert, and all the flaws in her relationship with Steve (below), it's Steve who she loves. She breaks up with Robert.
    * Steve Brady (David Eigenberg) is a bartender Miranda has what appears to be a one-night stand with after being stood up by Carrie, who is at Big's home cooking veal (to which she responds "You ditched me for a piece of politically incorrect meat?"). He falls for Miranda depite her initial resistance, and the one-night stand morphs into a relationship. The difference in income and aspirations between the two becomes a serious issue, and they break up twice during the series. In season 4, he is diagnosed with testicular cancer and must have one testicle removed. He and Miranda have sex in what Samantha calls "a mercy fuck", and Miranda gets pregnant. She gives birth to a boy named Brady. They decide to raise the baby together, but separated. In season 6, they get back together, then marry in an small, intimate ceremony.


Samantha's boyfriends

    * Maria (Sonia Braga) is a sensual artist that Samantha meets at an exhibit while admiring her work. Samantha is drawn to Maria's strong aura but quickly steps back when she realizes Maria wants to more than just friends. The chemistry is too strong and it isn't too long before Samantha is introducing her lesbian lover to her stunned friends. This is Samantha's first step towards committement and while she greatly admires and respects Maria, they part ways a few episodes later because Samantha can't stand the monogamy and misses the 'penis'.
    * Richard Wright (James Remar) is a extremely wealthy hotel magnate who meets his match in bed with Samantha. He seduces her, and they have a no-strings sexual relationship. Their relationship eventually escalates, and both parties struggle to keep their emotional distance. Eventually, both profess their love for each other, and they try to have a monogamous relationship. Samantha's heart is broken when she catches him having an affair.
    * Smith Jerrod (Jason Lewis) is a young waiter Samantha seduces in a trendy restaurant. She finds out he is an actor and becomes his publicist. Her first advice is to change the awkward name "Jerry Jerrod" to "Smith Jerrod". After Samantha takes control of his publicity and gets him a gig posing nude for an Absolut ad, his career takes off. Ironically, Smith is an alcoholic and attends AA meetings. When Samantha is diagnosed with breast cancer, Smith sticks by her side, shaving his signature long hair as a sign of solidarity. At the end of the series, Samantha and Smith are still together and in love.



As Sex and the City gained popularity, a number of celebrities had cameos on the show, some playing themselves and some playing characters. These include the following:

    * Nathan Lane
    * Amy Sedaris
    * Donald Trump
    * Jon Bon Jovi
    * Alanis Morissette
    * Matthew McConaughey
    * Vince Vaughn
    * Sarah Michelle Gellar
    * Carrie Fisher
    * Hugh Hefner
    * Margaret Cho
    * Alan Cumming
    * Heidi Klum
    * Ed Koch
    * Molly Shannon
    * Lucy Liu
    * Candice Bergen
    * Heather Graham
    * Tatum O'Neal
    * David Duchovny
    * Geri Halliwell
    * Carole Bouquet
    * Valerie Harper



Season 1 (1998)
#  Episode Title  Director  Writer  Original Airdate
1  Sex and the City  Susan Seidelman  Darren Star  June 7, 1998 (HBO)
2  Models and Mortals  Allison Maclean  Darren Star  June 7, 1998 (HBO)
3  Bay of Married Pigs  Nicole Holofcener  Darren Star  June 21, 1998 (HBO)
4  Valley of the Twenty Something Guys  Allison Maclean  Michael Patrick King  June 28, 1998 (HBO)
5  The Power of Female Sex  Susan Seidelman  Jenji Kohan  July 5, 1998 (HBO)
6  Secret Sex  Michael Fields  Darren Star  July 12, 1998 (HBO)
7  The Monogamists  Darren Star  Darren Star  July 19, 1998(HBO)
8  Three's A Crowd  Nicole Holofcener  Jenny Bicks  July 26, 1998 (HBO)
9  The Turtle and the Hare  Michael Fields  Nicole Avril, Sue Kolinsky  August 2, 1998 (HBO)
10  The Baby Shower  Susan Seidelman  Terri Minsky  August 9, 1998 (HBO)
11  The Drought  Matthew Harrison  Michael Green, Michael Patrick King  August 16, 1998 (HBO)
12  Oh Come All Ye Faithful  Matthew Harrison  Michael Patrick King  August 23, 1998 (HBO)

Season 2 (1999)
#  Episode Title  Director  Writer  Original Airdate
13  Take Me Out to the Ballgame  Allen Coulter  Michael Patrick King  June 6, 1999 (HBO)
14  The Awful Truth  Allen Coulter  Darren Star  June 13, 1999 (HBO)
15  The Freak Show  Allen Coulter  Jenny Bicks  June 20, 1999 (HBO)
16  They Shoot Single People Don't They?  Allen Coulter  Michael Patrick King  June 27, 1999(HBO)
17  Four Women and a Funeral  Allen Coulter  Jenny Bicks  July 4, 1999 (HBO)
18  The Cheating Curve  John David Coles  Darren Star  July 11, 1999 (HBO)
19  The Chicken Dance  Victoria Hochberg  Cindy Chupack  July 18, 1999 (HBO)
20  The Man, The Myth, The Viagra  Victoria Hochberg  Michael Patrick King  July 25, 1999 (HBO)
21  Old Dogs, New Dicks  Alan Taylor  Jenny Bicks  August 1, 1999 (HBO)
22  The Caste System  Allison Anders  Darren Star  August 8, 1999 (HBO)
23  Evolution  Pam Thomas  Cindy Chupack  August 15, 1999 (HBO)
24  La Doleur Exquisite!  Allison Anders  Ollie Levy, Michael Patrick King  August 22, 1999 (HBO)
25  Games People Play  Michael Spiller  Jenny Bicks  August 29, 1999 (HBO)
26  The Fuck Buddy  Alan Taylor  Darren Star  September 5, 1999 (HBO)
27  Shortcomings  Dan Algrant  Terri Minsky  September 12, 1999 (HBO)
28  Was It Good For You?  Dan Algrant  Michael Patrick King  September 19, 1999 (HBO)
29  Twenty-Something Girls Vs. Thirty-Something Women  Darren Star  Darren Star  September 26, 1999 (HBO)
30  Ex and the City  Michael Patrick King  Michael Patrick King  October 3, 1999 (HBO)

Season 3 (2000)
#  Episode Title  Director  Writer  Original Airdate
31  Where There's Smoke...  Michael Patrick King  Michael Patrick King  June 4, 2000 (HBO)
32  Politically Erect  Michael Patrick King  Darren Star  June 11, 2000 (HBO)
33  Attack of the 5'10" Woman  Pam Thomas  Cindy Chupack  June 18, 2000 (HBO)
34  Boy, Girl, Boy, Girl  Pam Thomas  Jenny Bicks  June 25, 2000 (HBO)
35  No Ifs, Ands Or Butts  Nicole Holofcener  Michael Patrick King  July 9, 2000 (HBO)
36  Are We Sluts?  Nicole Holofcener  Cindy Chupack  July 16, 2000 (HBO)
37  Drama Queens  Allison Anders  Darren Star  July 23, 2000 (HBO)
38  The Big Time  Allison Anders  Jenny Bicks  July 30, 2000 (HBO)
39  Easy Come, Easy Go  Charles McDougall  Michael Patrick King  August 6, 2000 (HBO)
40  All or Nothing  Charles McDougall  Jenny Bicks  August 13, 2000 (HBO)
41  Running With Scissors  Dennis Erdman  Michael Patrick King  August 20, 2000 (HBO)
42  Don't Ask, Don't Tell  Dan Algrant  Cindy Chupack  August 27, 2000 (HBO)
43  Escape from New York  John David Coles  Becky Hartman Edwards, Michael Patrick King  September 10, 2000 (HBO)
44  Sex and Another City  John David Coles  Jenny Bicks  September 17, 2000 (HBO)
45  Hot Child in the City  Michael Spiller  Allan Heinberg  September 24, 2000 (HBO)
46  Frenemies  Michael Spiller  Jenny Bicks  October 1, 2000 (HBO)
47  What Goes Around Comes Around  Allen Coulter  Darren Star  October 8, 2000 (HBO)
48  Cock-A-Doodle-Do  Allen Coulter  Michael Patrick King  October 15, 2000 (HBO)

Season 4 (2001-2002)
#  Episode Title  Director  Writer  Original Airdate
49  The Agony and the 'Ex'tacy  Michael Patrick King  Michael Patrick King  June 3, 2001 (HBO)
50  The Real Me  Michael Patrick King  Michael Patrick King  June 3, 2001 (HBO)
51  Defining Moments  Allen Coulter  Jenny Bicks  June 10, 2001 (HBO)
52  What's Sex Got to Do With It?  Allen Coulter  Nicole Avril  June 17, 2001 (HBO)
53  Ghost Town  Michael Spiller  Allan Heinberg  June 24, 2001 (HBO)
54  Baby, Talk Is Cheap  Michael Spiller  Cindy Chupack  July 1, 2001 (HBO)
55  Time and Punishment  Michael Engler  Jessica Bendinger  July 8, 2001 (HBO)
56  My Motherboard, My Self  Michael Engler  Julie Rottenberg, Eliza Zuritsky  July 15, 2001 (HBO)
57  Sex and the Country  Michael Spiller  Allan Heinberg  July 22, 2001 (HBO)
58  Belles of the Balls  Michael Spiller  Michael Patrick King  July 29, 2001 (HBO)
59  Coulda, Woulda, Shoulda  David Frankel  Jenny Bicks  August 5, 2001 (HBO)
60  Just Say Yes  David Frankel  Cindy Chupack  August 12, 2001 (HBO)
61  The Good Fight  Charles McDougall  Michael Patrick King  January 6, 2002 (HBO)
62  All That Glitters...  Charles McDougall  Cindy Chupack  January 13, 2002 (HBO)
63  Change of a Dress  Alan Taylor  Julie Rottenberg, Eliza Zuritsky  January 20, 2002 (HBO)
64  Ring A Ding Ding  Alan Taylor  Amy B. Harris  January 28, 2002 (HBO)
65  A "Vogue" Idea  Martha Coolidge  Allan Heinberg  February 3, 2002 (HBO)
66  I Heart NY  Martha Coolidge  Michael Patrick King  February 10, 2002 (HBO)

Season 5 (2002)
#  Episode Title  Director  Writer  Original Airdate
67  Anchors Away  Charles McDougall  Michael Patrick King  July 21, 2002 (HBO)
68  Unoriginal Sin  Charles McDougall  Cindy Chupack  July 28, 2002 (HBO)
69  Luck Be An Old Lady  John David Coles  Julie Rottenberg, Eliza Zuritsky  August 4, 2002 (HBO)
70  Cover Girl  John David Coles  Judy Toll, Michael Patrick King  August 11, 2002 (HBO)
71  Plus One is the Loneliest Number  Michael Patrick King  Cindy Chupack  August 18, 2002 (HBO)
72  Critical Condition  Michael Patrick King  Alexa Junge  August 25, 2002 (HBO)
73  The Big Journey  Michael Engler  Michael Patrick King  September 1, 2002 (HBO)
74  I Love a Charade  Michael Engler  Cindy Chupack, Michael Patrick King  September 8, 2002 (HBO)

Season 6 (2003-2004)
#  Episode Title  Director  Writer  Original Airdate
75  To Market, To Market  Michael Patrick King  Michael Patrick King  June 22, 2003 (HBO)
76  Great Sexpectations  Michael Patrick King  Cindy Chupack  June 29, 2003 (HBO)
77  The Perfect Present  David Frankel  Jenny Bicks  July 7, 2003 (HBO)
78  Pick-A-Little, Talk-A-Little  David Frankel  Julie Rottenberg, Eliza Zuritsky  July 14, 2003 (HBO)
79  Lights, Camera, Relationship  Michael Engler  Michael Patrick King  July 21, 2003 (HBO)
80  Hop, Skip and a Week  Michael Engler  Amy B. Harris  July 28, 2003 (HBO)
81  The Post-It Always Sticks Twice  Alan Taylor  Liz Tucillo  August 4, 2003 (HBO)
82  The Catch  Alan Taylor  Cindy Chupack  August 11, 2003 (HBO)
83  A Woman's Right to Shoes  Tim Van Patten  Jenny Bicks  August 18, 2003 (HBO)
84  Boy, Interrupted  Tim Van Patten  Cindy Chupack  August 25, 2003 (HBO)
85  The Domino Effect  David Frankel  Julie Rottenberg, Eliza Zuritsky  September 7, 2003 (HBO)
86  One  David Frankel  Michael Patrick King  September 14, 2003 (HBO)
87  Let There Be Light  Michael Patrick King  Michael Patrick King  January 4, 2004 (HBO)
88  The Ick Factor  Wendey Stanzler  Julie Rottenberg, Eliza Zuritsky  January 11, 2004 (HBO)
89  Catch-38  Michael Engler  Cindy Chupack  January 18, 2004 (HBO)
90  Out of the Frying Pan  Michael Engler  Jenny Bicks  January 25, 2004 (HBO)
91  The Cold War  Julian Farino  Aury Wallington  February 1, 2004 (HBO)
92  Splat!  Julian Farino  Jenny Bicks, Cindy Chupack  February 8, 2004 (HBO)
93  An American Girl in Paris, Part Une  Tim Van Patten  Michael Patrick King  February 15, 2004 (HBO)
94  An American Girl in Paris, Part Deux  Tim Van Patten  Michael Patrick King  February 22, 2004 (HBO)

Clip Shows
#  Episode Title  Original Airdate
1  Sex and the City: A Farewell  February 22, 2004 (HBO)


The following are quotations from the TV special, Sex And The City: A Farewell, that aired introducing the final episode:

Michael Patrick King, Executive Producer: "People thought, oh it's just about sex or it's just about fashion. And then slowly over the years people start to see it's really about love ... and relationships ... and sex ... and basically the battlefield of trying to be in love – whether it be with another person or with yourself."

Sarah Jessica Parker: "What the show has to have, and has had to have in order to survive six years, is a soul."

Kim Cattrall: "The show is a valentine to being single."

David Eigenberg: "They were honest about sex, they were honest about the humor of sex."

Kim Cattrall: "Being single used to mean that nobody wanted you, now it means you're pretty sexy and you're taking your time deciding how you want your life to be ... and who you want to spend it with."


In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 and its digital sister channel E4 broadcast episodes of "Sex and the City", while older episodes are rerun on Paramount Comedy. In Canada, the show airs on Bravo! Canada and Citytv Toronto, and in Germany it is shown on Pro7. In the Netherlands, the show is aired by Net 5, and in Sweden it is aired by TV3 and ZTV. In Italy the show airs on La7. In Australia it was broadcast on the Nine Network. It is now shown on Ten, on Monday nights. In Japan, the show is aired by In Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, India, and Pakistan the show airs on HBO Asia (season 1-6). Sex and the City was banned in Singapore until July 2004, when the government allowed the television series to be aired on cable after being censored. In Latvia this serial can be seen on TV3. In Denmark it is currently shown on TV3 as well.


Some commentators have criticized the television show as promoting immorality by encouraging a hedonistic lifestyle and treating women as sexual objects. Additionally, they argued that it is at times mere pornography with a superficial plot. The characters are also wealthy and unabashedly elitist, which raises further questions about the morality of the show.

Others claim in response that Sex and the City is an attempt to realistically – yet artistically – portray sexual behavior in the urban United States. Others have noted that the show tends to portray its main characters as shallow and superficial.

When Sex and the City was run in syndication on TBS, some viewers organized boycotts of the station, arguing that this would put the program within access of young children.

Some commentators criticized Sex and the City's distorted presentation of female sexuality, claiming the sexuality is more akin to that of the allegedly gay, male writers of the show. The frequent obsession with penis size by one character is taken to be untypical of women and more typical of a phallocentric male focus. Others have charged that the ridiculing of modestly endowed men is sexist and harmful, contributing to body issues for men similar to that of young women over their weight or breast size.

External links

    * home of HBO's Sex and the City
    * Sex and the City episode guide at
    * Carrie's Diary - Sex and the City fan site
    * Sex and the City fan site (German)
    * Sex and the City at the Internet Movie Database


Sledge Hammer!

Sledge Hammer! is a television satirical sitcom that ran for two seasons on ABC from 1986 to 1988. The series was created by Alan Spencer and starred David Rasche and a .44 Magnum. Despite its brief run, it has gained a cult following.

Sledge Hammer! was a Get Smart-like spoof of the Dirty Harry series of movies. Its main character, Inspector Sledge Hammer of the San Francisco Police Department, was a violent, sadistic, insensitive detective who talked to his gun. Spencer's original script for the series was written after the third Dirty Harry film, The Enforcer, was released in 1976 but was widely rejected. However, eight years later, after the release of the fourth movie, Sudden Impact, in 1983, demand for a "renegade cop" parody began and ABC produced a pilot episode of Sledge Hammer! after HBO rejected Spencer's pilot script.

Sledge Hammer's motto is:

    "Trust me. I know what I'm doing."

Beside Hammer, the main characters are his partner, Detective Dori Doreau (played by Anne-Marie Martin), who is sensitive, intelligent and female (everything Sledge is not) and his migraine-suffering superior, Captain Trunk (played by Harrison Page). The theme music was written by Danny Elfman. Coincidentally, the pilot of Sledge Hammer! was completed at the same time as Peter Gabriel's song "Sledgehammer" became a hit.

Marvel Comics also released a short-lived comic book based upon the series.

Sledge Hammer poked fun at many other TV series and had a well-publicized "feud" with the contemporary sitcom, Mr. Belvedere. The show's own network wasn't spared either. One episode ended with an epilogue that was intentionally miscolored as a parody of the then-popular colorization trend; ABC received so many complaints from viewers thinking it was a transmission error that for a time callers to ABC's switchboard heard a recorded message explaining that it was all a joke.

Because ABC intended to cancel the series, the last episode of the first season ended with an atomic bomb destroying the city. When ABC unexpectedly renewed the show -- due to the network moving the show to a better time that improved ratings for the final episode -- the first episode of the second season explained that it and following episodes were set "five years before" the explosion. However, the second season suffered from a reduced budget and lowered filming standard (down to 16 mm film from the previous season's 35 mm), and was not renewed for a third season.

The first season of Sledge Hammer! was released on DVD in 2004, on which the laugh track, which the network had insisted on including on the pilot and first 12 episodes, has been removed. The DVD also includes an unaired version of the pilot that runs several minutes longer, has a different ending, and different theme music. An earthquake allegedly hit while Alan Spencer was recording commentary for one of the DVDs; the tape supposedly kept rolling during the event and was included on the DVD, leaving viewers wondering whether the earthquake was real. The second season was released on DVD on April 12, 2005; the commentary on the final episode ended with Spencer, again, being caught in an apparent earthquake.

Episode List

Season 1 (1986-87)

   1. Under The Gun (Pilot) (Sep 23, 1986)
   2. Hammer Gets Nailed (Sep 26, 1986)
   3. Witless (Oct 3, 1986)
   4. They Shoot Hammers, Don't They? (Oct 17, 1986)
   5. Dori Day Afternoon (Oct 24, 1986)
   6. To Sledge, with Love (Oct 31, 1986)
   7. All Shook Up (Nov 6, 1986)
   8. Over My Dead Bodyguard (Nov 13, 1986)
   9. Magnum Farce (Nov 22, 1986)
  10. If I Had a Little Hammer (Nov 29, 1986)
  11. To Live and Die on TV (Dec 13, 1986)
  12. Miss of the Spider Woman (Dec 20, 1986)
  13. The Old Man and the Sledge (Jan 3, 1987)
  14. State of Sledge (Jan 10, 1987)
  15. Haven't Gun, Will Travel (Jan 17, 1987)
  16. The Color of Hammer (Jan 24, 1987)
  17. Brother, Can You Spare a Crime? (Jan 31, 1987)
  18. Desperately Seeking Dori (Feb 7, 1987)
  19. Sledgepoo (Feb 14, 1987)
  20. Comrade Hammer (Feb 21, 1987)
  21. Jagged Sledge (Apr 21, 1987)
  22. The Spa Who Loved Me (Apr 28, 1987)

Season 2 (1987-1988)

   1. A Clockwork Hammer (Sep 17, 1987)
   2. Big Nazi on Campus (Sep 24, 1987)
   3. Play It Again, Sledge (Oct 1, 1987)
   4. Wild About Hammer (Oct 8, 1987)
   5. The Death of a Few Salesmen (Oct 15, 1987)
   6. Vertical (Oct 29, 1987)
   7. Dressed to Call (Nov 5, 1987)
   8. Hammer Hits the Rock (a.k.a. Sledge on the Rock) (Nov 12, 1987)
   9. Hammeroid (Nov 26, 1987)
  10. Last of the Red Hot Vampires (Nov 19, 1987)
  11. Sledge in Toyland (Dec 3, 1987)
  12. Icebreaker (Dec 10, 1987)
  13. They Call Me Mr. Trunk (Dec 17, 1987)
  14. Model Dearest (Jan 7, 1988)
  15. Sledge, Rattle & Roll (Jan 15, 1988)
  16. Suppose They Gave a War & Sledge Came? (Jan 22, 1988)
  17. The Secret of My Excess (Jan 29, 1988)
  18. It Happened What Night? (Feb 5, 1988)
  19. Here's to You, Mrs. Hammer (Feb 12, 1988)